My Information Skills

Self-paced tutorials on research and study skills for TAFE SA students

Harvard end-text citations

Harvard end-text citations almost always follow the pattern of whowhenwhat, and where to give all the information needed to locate the source.

The formatting and punctuation used is very specific:

(Click on image to view a larger version)

Citations should cover who, when, what and where.

Formatting for Harvard end-text citations:

  • Surnames are followed by initials only. No full stops and no spaces are used with people's initials.
    For example Mark Simon Hart would be Hart, MS
  • All authors are included.
  • Book titles are italicised. Minimal capitalisation is used.
  • Periodical/newspaper titles are italicised, but capitals are used.
  • Titles of articles and chapters are not italicised, but are enclosed by single quotation marks.
    For example: 'Hidden mentor', Printmaking Today...
  • Each element of the citation is separated by a comma. A full stop is placed at the end.


Again, using the bibliographic data for this book:

book cover Who: Tanya Ha
When: 2008
What: The Australian Green Consumer Guide: choosing products for a healthier planet, home and bank balance
Where: (publisher) University of New South Wales Press, (place) Sydney

The Harvard end-text citation for this book is:

Ha, T 2008, The Australian green consumer guide: choosing products for a healthier planet, home and bank balance, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.

The Harvard Referencing (Advanced) Library Guide shows a lot of examples of how to set out your references for different types of sources. It can be helpful to have this guide at hand when you are writing your assignments.